Meaning of Human Resource Management HRM
HRM means to Select, Develop, Motivate and Maintain human resources, in the organisation. It first selects the right human resources or staff (i.e. managers and employees). It trains and develops them. It motivates them by giving them recognition and rewards. It also provides them with the best working conditions.
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HRM is directly concerned with the "people" of the organisation. It is people oriented process. That is, it manages people at work.
Features of Human Resource Management HRM
Following is the nature or features of Human Resource Management HRM :-
1. HRM as a Process
HRM is a process of four functions :-
- Acquisition of human resources : This function includes Human Resource Planning, Recruitment, Selection, Placement and Induction of staff.
- Development of human resources : This function includes Training and Development and Career development. The knowledge, skills, attitudes and social behavious of the staff are developed.
- Motivation of human resources : This function includes giving recognition and rewards to the staff. it also includes Performance Appraisal and handling the problems of staff.
- Maintenance of human resources : This function includes providing the best working conditions for employees. It also looks after the health and safety of the staff.
2. Continuous Process
HRM is not a one-time process. It is a continuous process. It has to continuously change and adjust according to the changes in the environment, changes in the expectations of the staff, etc. HRM has to give continuous training and development to the staff due to changes in technology.
3. Focus on Objectives
HRM gives a lot of importance to achievement of objectives.
The four main objectives HRM has to achieve are :-
- Individual objectives of the staff.
- Group or Departmental objectives.
- Organisational objectives.
- Societal objectives.
4. Universal Application
HRM has universal application. That is, it can be used for business as well as for other organisations such as schools, colleges, hospital, religious organisations, etc.
5. Integrated use of Subsystems
HRM involves the integrated use of sub-systems such as Training and Development, Career Development, Orgnisational Development, Performance Appraisal, Potential Appraisal, etc. All these subsystems increase the efficiency of the staff and bring success to the organisation.
HRM is multidisciplinary. That is, it uses many different subjects such as Psychology, Communication, Philosophy, Sociology, Management, Education, etc.
7. Developes Team Spirit
HRM tries to develop the team spirit of the full organisation. Team spirit helps the staff to work together for achieving the objectives of the organisation. Now-a-days more importance is given to team work and not to individuals.
8. Develops Staff Potentialities
HRM develops the potentialities of the staff by giving them training and development. This will make the staff more efficient, and it will give them more job satisfaction.
9. Key Elements for solving problems
Today, we have rapid technological, managerial, economic and social changes. These changes bring many problems. HRM continuously tries to solve these problems.
10. Long Term Benefits
HRM brings many long term benefits to the individuals (staff), the organisation and the society. It gives many financial and non-financial benefits to the staff. It improves the image and profits of the organisation. It also provides a regular supply of good quality goods and services at reasonable prices to the society.
Scope of Human Resource Management HRM
The Scope of Human Resource Management HRM is discussed below :-
1. Human Resource Planning (HRP)
HRP estimates the manpower demand and manpower supply of the organisation. It compares the manpower demand and manpower supply. If there is manpower surplus then it gives voluntary retirement, lay-off, etc. to some employees. If there is manpower shortage then it hires employees from outside, gives promotion to employees, etc.
2. Acquisition Function
Acquisition function includes Human Resource Planning, Recruitment, Selection, Placement and Induction of employees. HRM uses the scientific selection procedure for selecting the right man for the right post. The "right man" is given proper placement and induction.
3. Placement Function
HRM also performs the placement function. Placement is done after selection of employees. It means to put the right man in the right place of work. Proper placement gives job satisfaction to the employees, and it increases their efficiency.
4. Performance Appraisal
HRM also conducts a performance appraisal. Performance appraisal is a systematic evaluation of the employees' performance at work. It informs the employees about their strengths and weakness. It also advises them about how to increase their strengths and remove their weaknesses.
5. Career Development
HRM also helps the employees in planning and developing their careers. It informs them about future promotions and how to get these promotions. It helps them to grow and develop in the organisation.
6. Training and Development
HRM also provides training and development to the employees. Training means to increase the knowledge and skills of the employee for doing a particular job. Training given to managers is called development. So, training is given to employees while development is given to managers.
7. Quality of Work Life (QWL)
HRM also includes Quality of Work Life. QWL is a technique for improving productivity and quality of work. It involves labour management co-operation, collective bargaining and participative management.
QWL provides good working conditions, job security, good pay and other facilities such as flexible working hours, freedom to suggest changes or improvements, etc. OWL creates a sense of belonging. This benefits the organisation as well as the individual employees.
8. Employees' Welfare
HRM provides employee's welfare. Welfare measures include paid holidays, medical insurance, canteen facilities, recreation facilities, rest room, transport facilities, etc. Proper and timely welfare facilities motivate the employees to work hard in the organisation.
9. Compensation Function
Employees must be rewarded and recognised for their performance. HRM makes proper compensation packages for the employees. These packages motivate the employees and increase their morale. Rewards are given to individuals, and teams. The rewards may be in the form of higher pay, bonus, other monetary incentives, and non-monetary incentives such as a certificate of appreciation, etc.
10. Labour Relations
HRM is also includes industrial relations. It includes union management relations, joint consultations, negotiating, collective bargaining, grievance handling, disciplinary actions, settlement of industrial disputes, etc.
11. Maintenance Function
HRM also performs the maintenance function. That is, protecting and promoting the health and safety of the employees. HRM introduces health and safety measures. It also provides other benefits such as medical aid, provident fund, pension, gratuity, maternity benefits, accident compensation, etc., to the employees.