Structure of Indian Money Market - Chart ↓
The entire money market in India can be divided into two parts. They are organised money market and the unorganized money market. The unorganised money market can also be known as an unauthorized money market. Both of these components comprise several constituents. The following chart will help you in understanding the organisational structure of the Indian money market.
Components, SubMarkets of Indian Money Market ↓
After studying above organisational chart of the Indian money market it is necessary to understand various components or sub markets within it. They are explained below.
- Call Money Market : It an important sub market of the Indian money market. It is also known as money at call and money at short notice. It is also called inter bank loan market. In this market money is demanded for extremely short period. The duration of such transactions is from few hours to 14 days. It is basically located in the industrial and commercial locations such as Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, etc. These transactions help stock brokers and dealers to fulfill their financial requirements. The rate at which money is made available is called as a call rate. Thus rate is fixed by the market forces such as the demand for and supply of money.
- Commercial Bill Market : It is a market for the short term, self liquidating and negotiable money market instrument. Commercial bills are used to finance the movement and storage of agriculture and industrial goods in domestic and foreign markets. The commercial bill market in India is still underdeveloped.
- Treasury Bill Market : This is a market for sale and purchase of short term government securities. These securities are called as Treasury Bills which are promissory notes or financial bills issued by the RBI on behalf of the Government of India. There are two types of treasury bills. (i) Ordinary or Regular Treasury Bills and (ii) Ad Hoc Treasury Bills. The maturity period of these securities range from as low as 14 days to as high as 364 days. They have become very popular recently due to high level of safety involved in them.
- Market for Certificate of Deposits (CDs) : It is again an important segment of the Indian money market. The certificate of deposits is issued by the commercial banks. They are worth the value of Rs. 25 lakh and in multiple of Rs. 25 lakh. The minimum subscription of CD should be worth Rs. 1 Crore. The maturity period of CD is as low as 3 months and as high as 1 year. These are the transferable investment instrument in a money market. The government initiated a market of CDs in order to widen the range of instruments in the money market and to provide a higher flexibility to investors for investing their short term money.
- Market for Commercial Papers (CPs) : It is the market where the commercial papers are traded. Commercial paper (CP) is an investment instrument which can be issued by a listed company having working capital more than or equal to Rs. 5 cr. The CPs can be issued in multiples of Rs. 25 lakhs. However the minimum subscription should at least be Rs. 1 cr. The maturity period for the CP is minimum of 3 months and maximum 6 months. This was introcuced by the government in 1990.
- Short Term Loan Market : It is a market where the short term loan requirements of corporates are met by the Commercial banks. Banks provide short term loans to corporates in the form of cash credit or in the form of overdraft. Cash credit is given to industrialists and overdraft is given to businessmen.