Role of Stock Exchanges In Capital Market of India
Stock Exchanges play a crucial role in the consolidation of a national economy in general and in the development of industrial sector in particular. It is the most dynamic and organised component of capital market. Especially, in developing countries like India, the stock exchanges play a cardinal role in promoting the level of capital formation through effective mobilisation of savings and ensuring investment safety.
Lets study the role of stock exchanges in capital market of India :-
1. Effective Mobilisation of savings
Stock exchanges provide organised market for an individual as well as institutional investors. They regulate the trading transactions with proper rules and regulations in order to ensure investor's protection. This helps to consolidate the confidence of investors and small savers. Thus, stock exchanges attract small savings especially of large number of investors in the capital market.
2. Promoting Capital formation
The funds mobilised through capital market are provided to the industries engaged in the production of various goods and services useful for the society. This leads to capital formation and development of national assets. The savings mobilised are channelised into appropriate avenues of investment.
3. Wider Avenues of investment
Stock exchanges provide a wider avenue for the investment to the people and organisations with investible surplus. Companies from diverse industries like Information Technology, Steel, Chemicals, Fuels and Petroleum, Cement, Fertilizers, etc. offer various kinds of equity and debt securities to the investors. Online trading facility has brought the stock exchange at the doorsteps of investors through computer network. Diverse type of securities is made available in the stock exchanges to suit the varying objectives and notions of different classes of investor. Necessary information from stock exchanges available from different sources guides the investors in the effective management of their investment portfolios.
4. Liquidity of investment
Stock exchanges provide liquidity of investment to the investors. Investors can sell out any of their investments in securities at any time during trading days and trading hours on stock exchanges. Thus, stock exchanges provide liquidity of investment. The on-line trading and online settlement of demat securities facilitates the investors to sellout their investments and realise the proceeds within a day or two. Even investors can switch over their investment from one security to another according to the changing scenario of capital market.
5. Investment priorities
Stock exchanges facilitate the investors to decide his investment priorities by providing him the basket of different kinds of securities of different industries and companies. He can sell stock of one company and buy a stock of another company through stock exchange whenever he wants. He can manage his investment portfolio to maximise his wealth.
6. Investment safety
Stock exchanges through their by-laws, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) guidelines, transparent procedures try to provide safety to the investment in industrial securities. Government has established the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Over The Counter Exchange of India (OTCEI) for investors' safety. Exchange authorities try to curb speculative practices and minimise the risk for common investor to preserve his confidence.
7. Wide Marketability to Securities
Online price quoting system and online buying and selling facility have changed the nature and working of stock exchanges. Formerly, the dealings on stock exchanges were restricted to its head quarters. The investors across the country were absolutely in dark about the price fluctuations on stock exchanges due to the lack of information. But today due to Internet, on line quoting facility is available at the computers of investors. As a result, they can keep track of price fluctuations taking place on stock exchange every second during the working hours. Certain T.V. Channels like CNBC are fully devoted to stock market information and corporate news. Even other channels display the on line quoting of stocks. Thus, modern stock exchanges backed up by internet and information technology provide wide marketability to securities of the industries. Demat facility has revolutionised the procedure of transfer of securities and facilitated marketing.
8. Financial resources for public and private sectors
Stock Exchanges make available the financial resources available to the industries in public and private sector through various kinds of securities. Due to the assurance of liquidity, marketing support, investment safety assured through stock exchanges, the public issues of securities by these industries receive strong public response (resulting in oversubscription of issue).
9. Funds for Development Purpose
Stock exchanges enable the government to mobilise the funds for public utilities and public undertakings which take up the developmental activities like power projects, shipping, railways, telecommunication, dams & roads constructions, etc. Stock exchanges provide liquidity, marketability, price continuity and constant evaluation of government securities.
10. Indicator of Industrial Development
Stock exchanges are the symbolic indicators of industrial development of a nation. Productivity, efficiency, economic-status, prospects of each industry and every unit in an industry is reflected through the price fluctuation of industrial securities on stock exchanges. Stock exchange sensex and price fluctuations of securities of various companies tell the entire story of changes in industrial sector.
11. Barometer of National Economy
Stock exchange is taken as a Barometer of the economy of a country. Each economy is economically symbolized (indicators) by its most significant stock exchange. New York Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, Tokyo Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange are considered as barometers of U.S.A, United Kingdom, Japan and India respectively. At both national and international level these stock exchanges represent the progress and conditions of their economies.
Thus, stock exchange serves the nation in several ways through its diversified economic services which include imparting liquidity to investments, providing marketability, enabling evaluation and ensuring price continuity of securities.