Introduction to Capital Adequacy Norms
Along with profitability and safety, banks also give importance to Solvency. Solvency refers to the situation where assets are equal to or more than liabilities. A bank should select its assets in such a way that the shareholders and depositors' interest are protected.
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1. Prudential Norms
The norms which are to be followed while investing funds are called "Prudential Norms." They are formulated to protect the interests of the shareholders and depositors. Prudential Norms are generally prescribed and implemented by the central bank of the country. Commercial Banks have to follow these norms to protect the interests of the customers.
For international banks, prudential norms were prescribed by the Bank for International Settlements popularly known as BIS. The BIS appointed a Basle Committee on Banking Supervision in 1988.
2. Basel Committee
Basel committee appointed by BIS formulated rules and regulation for effective supervision of the central banks. For this it, also prescribed international norms to be followed by the central banks. This committee prescribed Capital Adequacy Norms in order to protect the interests of the customers.
3. Definition of Capital Adequacy Ratio
Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) is defined as the ratio of bank's capital to its risk assets. Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) is also known as Capital to Risk (Weighted) Assets Ratio (CRAR).
India and Capital Adequacy Norms
The Government of India (GOI) appointed the Narasimham Committee in 1991 to suggest reforms in the financial sector. In the year 1992-93 the Narasimhan Committee submitted its first report and recommended that all the banks are required to have a minimum capital of 8% to the risk weighted assets of the banks. The ratio is known as Capital to Risk Assets Ratio (CRAR). All the 27 Public Sector Banks in India (except UCO and Indian Bank) had achieved the Capital Adequacy Norm of 8% by March 1997.
The Second Report of Narasimham Committee was submitted in the year 1998-99. It recommended that the CRAR to be raised to 10% in a phased manner. It recommended an intermediate minimum target of 9% to be achieved by the year 2000 and 10% by 2002.
Concepts of Capital Adequacy Norms
Capital Adequacy Norms included different Concepts, explained as follows :-
1. Tier-I Capital
Capital which is first readily available to protect the unexpected losses is called as Tier-I Capital. It is also termed as Core Capital.
Tier-I Capital consists of :-
- Paid-Up Capital.
- Statutory Reserves.
- Other Disclosed Free Reserves : Reserves which are not kept side for meeting any specific liability.
- Capital Reserves : Surplus generated from sale of Capital Assets.
2. Tier-II Capital
Capital which is second readily available to protect the unexpected losses is called as Tier-II Capital.
Tier-II Capital consists of :-
- Undisclosed Reserves and Paid-Up Capital Perpetual Preference Shares.
- Revaluation Reserves (at discount of 55%).
- Hybrid (Debt / Equity) Capital.
- Subordinated Debt.
- General Provisions and Loss Reserves.
There is an important condition that Tier II Capital cannot exceed 50% of Tier-I Capital for arriving at the prescribed Capital Adequacy Ratio.
3. Risk Weighted Assets
Capital Adequacy Ratio is calculated based on the assets of the bank. The values of bank's assets are not taken according to the book value but according to the risk factor involved. The value of each asset is assigned with a risk factor in percentage terms.
Suppose CRAR at 10% on Rs. 150 crores is to be maintained. This means the bank is expected to have a minimum capital of Rs. 15 crores which consists of Tier I and Tier II Capital items subject to a condition that Tier II value does not exceed 50% of Tier I Capital. Suppose the total value of items under Tier I Capital is Rs. 5 crores and total value of items under Tier II capital is Rs. 10 crores, the bank will not have requisite CRAR of Rs. 15 Crores. This is because a maximum of only Rs. 2.5 Crores under Tier II will be eligible for computation.
4. Subordinated Debt
These are bonds issued by banks for raising Tier II Capital.
They are as follows :-
- They should be fully paid up instruments.
- They should be unsecured debt.
- They should be subordinated to the claims of other creditors. This means that the bank's holder's claims for their money will be paid at last in order of preference as compared with the claims of other creditors of the bank.
- The bonds should not be redeemable at the option of the holders. This means the repayment of bond value will be decided only by the issuing bank.