Types of intermittent production system
The types of an intermittent production system are depicted below.
The types of an intermittent production system include:
- Project production flows,
- Jobbing production flows, and
- Batch production flows.
Now let's discuss each type of intermittent production system.
1. Project production flows
Here, in project production flows, company accepts a single, complex order or contract. The order must be completed within a given period of time and at an estimated cost.
Examples of project production flows mainly include, construction of airports, dams, roads, buildings, shipbuilding, etc.
The characteristics or features of project production flows are as follows:
- The requirement of resources is not same (it varies). Generally, the resource requirement at the beginning is low. Then in mid of production, the requirement increases. Finally, it slows down when the project is near its completion phase.
- Many agencies are involved in the project. Each agency performs specialized jobs. Here, coordination between agencies is important because all jobs are interrelated.
- Delays take place in completion of projects due to its complexity and massiveness.
- As routing and scheduling changes with fresh orders, proper inspection is required at each stage of production.
2. Jobbing production flows
Here, in jobbing production flows, company accepts a contract to produce either one or few units of a product strictly as per specifications given by the customer. The product is produced within a given period and at a fixed cost. This cost is fixed at the time of signing the contract.
Examples of such jobbing production flows include, services given by repair shops, tailoring shops, manufacturer of special machine tools, etc.
The characteristics or features of jobbing production flows are as follows:
- The production of items takes place in small lots. Sometimes only one product is produced at one time.
- The items are manufactured strictly as per customer's specifications.
- Highly skilled labour is required to perform specialized jobs.
- There is disproportionate manufacturing cycle time. For e.g. the time needed to design the product may be more than the manufacturing time.
3. Batch production flows
In batch production flows, the production schedule is decided according to specific orders or are based on the demand forecasts. Here, the production of items takes place in lots or batches. A product is divided into different jobs. All jobs of one batch of production must be completed before starting the next batch of production.
Examples of batch production flows include, manufacturing of drugs and pharmaceuticals, medium and heavy machineries, etc.
The characteristics or features of batch production flows are as follows:
- The products are made and kept in stock until their demand arises in the market.
- General purpose machines and handling equipments, which can do many different jobs quickly are installed. This is because large varieties of items are to be produced.
- There is a possibility of large work-in-progress due to many reasons.
- There is a need for detailed production planning and control.