Introduction To Concept of Summarization ↓
A summary is a short statement or statements that give only the main points or core information of something excluding redundant information. Basically it reproduces main points of a speech, article, section, chapter or book. It does not strive for the style and tone of the original.
Today's work culture ultimately requires summary writing skills to save time, money and energy as use of summarized versions in a business organisation is essential at various stages. Thus, today candidates with adequate summarization skills are in great demand for employment.
Summarization is a skill and requires proper guidance, constant practice, special efforts and proper training. An abstract is written by an expert for experts. It presents specific analysis, whereas synopsis is brief account of research or business proposal and an outline is primarily a sketch presented professionally. These types of writing involves summarization skills. While writing summary one has to remember that he or she is not directed or allowed to mould, alter or change the main idea and introduce new ideas. Thus, summarization is a process that requires careful attention.
An engineer may be asked to submit a 10 minutes summary of 10000 pages long proposal. To present such a report in stipulated efficient time summarization skills acquired.
A summary is required at various stages in an organization. Board of directors, chief executive, secretary, chairman and others may not have sufficient time to read complete proposal. They prefer a perfect summary. A prejudiced or partial summary will misguide and hinder smooth flow of communication. Thus, a complete, candid, perfect and unbiased summary is welcomed and used in the process of decision making
Essential Steps To Summarization ↓
- Use perfect reading skills : As cited earlier, reading is a skill. If proper steps are taken, it will remain multi-beneficial. It also plays vital role in summarization skill. In the process of summarization, it helps to segregate following aspects of reading material.
- Facts and opinions
- Examples, figures, tables, anecdotes
- Main ideas and supporting ideas
- Most important and redundant or less important points
- Underline or note-down major idea : An important stape in the process of summarization is to note-down or underline major ideas during the reading stage. It helps to collect and reproduce major ideas while writing summary. This stage requires best selection and perfect analytical skills. The wrong selection will be futile and create chaos. The notes taken or underlined segment will become the base of a summary.
- Check for appropriation : After collecting (i.e. noting-down) major points, summary writer is directed to check for appropriateness of ideas to be reproduced in the summary. If proper steps are not taken, the collected points may misguide and not help to reproduce the perfect summary.
- Prepare the first draft : Next important step in summary writing is the prepartion of first draft. In this stage try to frame simple, self-dependent, short sentences and club points to develop logical link. This draft must be a complete, candid and include maximum points. Enough care is required to avoid needless repetitions and omit examples, anecdotes, and other redundant data.lt is also essential to develop structured paragraphs during this stage.
- Tailor and limit your summary : First draft always requires proper brush up and improvements. Hence, it is essential to check for perfectness. During this stage it is recommended to check for complete package and logical arrangement It is recommended to select and reproduce theme and meaning or message of the story, table or statistical data, use your own language and active voice. It is also essential to write objectively and insert link between each segment with the help of words such as, therefore, because, as, neverthless, however, on the other hand, such as and others to write a professional summary. It is also essential to adjust length of summary. It must not exceed ⅓rd of the original text.
Three Important Summarization Techniques ↓
There are three important summarization techniques. They are selection, rejection and substitution. They are discussed hereunder.
- Selection : Selection is an important summarization technique. It is essential to select major idea, key words and phrases, special terms and interpretations presented in the original resource.These aspects must be considered seriously while writing these summary. It is an important summarization technique as it helps to include all major ideas in summary.
- Rejection : Rejection is an important summarization technique. lt is a process of removing unnecessary data. As cited earlier, try to reject repetitions, examples, illustrations, anecdotes, redundant, expressions, tables and statistical data. Basically rejection helps to prepare a perfect summary.
- Substitution : It is also an important summarization technique. Basically it includes synthesis. It is a mode of combining several sentences into one sentence. It is recommended to use sentence substitutions, short sentences to replace lengthy sentences. Use of one-word substitutions is an added advantage in the summary writing process.
Tips - How To Summarize Any Given Passage? ↓
- Be careful to select the theme of passage or reading material.
- Do not reproduce sentences from original text.
- Do not provide scope for ambiguity.
- Include all major ideas.
- Be objective and write summary in third person.
- Observe proportion.
- Do not include any redundant data.
- Never introduce your ideas.
- Do not criticize or change the original source.
- Limit your summary, it must not be more than ⅓rd the length of the original passage.
- Prefer short, simple and self dependent sentences.
- Be strigent with words.
- Avoid cluttering, pleonasm or redundant phares.
- Avoid needless repetitions.
- Logically link each section.
Final Quick Glance On Summarization ↓
A summary presents main ideas of given passage. The objective style is used to write a summary. A perfect summary is useful in todays professional era.
Glossary - Important Terms of Summarization ↓
Summary : Giving main points of some resource.
Synopsis : A summary of a piece.
Excerpt : A short piece of writing taken from a longer source.
Synthesis : The act of combining seperate ideas, beliefs, etc.
Rejection : That something cannot be used or sold because of something wrong.