Money Market Concept, Meaning
There are two types of financial markets viz., the money market and the capital market. The money market in that part of a financial market which deals in the borrowing and lending of short term loans generally for a period of less than or equal to 365 days. It is a mechanism to clear short term monetary transactions in an economy.
Definitions of Money Market
Following definitions will help us to understand the concept of money market.
According to Crowther, "The money market is a name given to the various firms and institutions that deal in the various grades of near money."
According to the RBI, "The money market is the centre for dealing mainly of short character, in monetary assets; it meets the short term requirements of borrowers and provides liquidity or cash to the lenders. It is a place where short term surplus investible funds at the disposal of financial and other institutions and individuals are bid by borrowers, again comprising institutions and individuals and also by the government."
According to Nadler and Shipman, "A money market is a mechanical device through which short term funds are loaned and borrowed through which a large part of the financial transactions of a particular country or world are degraded. A money market is distinct from but supplementary to the commercial banking system."
These definitions help us to identify the basic characteristics of a money market. A money market comprises of a well organized banking system. Various financial instruments are used for transactions in a money market. There is perfect mobility of funds in a money market. The transactions in a money market are of short term nature.
Functions of Money Market
Money market is an important part of the economy. It plays very significant functions. As mentioned above it is basically a market for short term monetary transactions. Thus it has to provide facility for adjusting liquidity to the banks, business corporations, non-banking financial institutions (NBFs) and other financial institutions along with investors.
The major functions of money market are given below:
- To maintain monetary equilibrium. It means to keep a balance between the demand for and supply of money for short term monetary transactions.
- To promote economic growth. Money market can do this by making funds available to various units in the economy such as agriculture, small scale industries, etc.
- To provide help to Trade and Industry. Money market provides adequate finance to trade and industry. Similarly it also provides facility of discounting bills of exchange for trade and industry.
- To help in implementing Monetary Policy. It provides a mechanism for an effective implementation of the monetary policy.
- To help in Capital Formation. Money market makes available investment avenues for short term period. It helps in generating savings and investments in the economy.
- Money market provides non-inflationary sources of finance to government. It is possible by issuing treasury bills in order to raise short loans. However this dose not leads to increases in the prices.
Apart from those, money market is an arrangement which accommodates banks and financial institutions dealing in short term monetary activities such as the demand for and supply of money.
Articles on Indian Money Market ↓
Read following articles on Indian money market:
- Structure and Components of Indian Money Market - Chart.
- Indian Money Market - Features, Drawbacks and Recent Reforms.