Sharing Wisdom and Vivid Memories of Life


Kalyan City is a fast emerging residential township in the Thane district of Maharashtra state, India. It is a central suburban town and resides 54 km north-east of Mumbai. This blog regularly shares quality academic materials. Here we also document our unique experiences and vivid memories of life. Read our lucid, informative articles to excel your understanding, knowledge and success.


Articles published on Kalyan City Life blog is inspired by our work experience, field research, study of various good books and papers, seminars and consultations from subject scholars. Our unique collection of useful study notes is an outcome of a team effort and hard work of Gaurav Akrani, Prof. Mudit Katyani and Manoj Patil.

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Principles of Good Layout for an Advertisement Copy

Principles of Good Layout

The twelve features, qualities, or principles of good layout are as follows:

principles of good layout

Image Credits © Manoj Patil.

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Basic Assumptions of Law of Demand

Assumptions of Law of Demand

Law of Demand can operate and remain valid only if certain things like income, population size, climate, consumer's tastes and expectations, etc., are assumed to remain constant or equal. In other words, there is a need for an assumption or a consideration that these things do not change at all under any circumstances.

The six basic assumptions of law of demand are as follows:

assumptions of law of demand

Image Credits © Gaurav Akrani.

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Limitations of Planning in Management - Disadvantages

Twelve demerits, disadvantages or limitations of planning in management.

limitations of planning

Image Credits © Manoj Patil.

square 1. Time Consuming

Planning involves the collection of data, analysis of data, forecasting, etc. All this consumes a lot of precious time. Therefore, planning is a time-consuming activity.

square 2. Costly

Planning is the work of experts. They get paid very high salaries to make good plans. Companies spend an enormous amount of money in collecting and analysing data. Therefore, planning is a costly affair.

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Proportional Reserve System of Note Issue Explained

Proportional Reserve System

First let's understand the meaning of three words, namely:

  1. Proportion means a part, percentage or share of something regarded as a collective whole.
  2. Reserve implies something valuable stocked up systematically or stored carefully often on a large scale at a secured location.
  3. A System comprises a set of detailed procedures, routines, and methods that are supposed to be followed to perform certain activities.

In Proportional Reserve System (PRS), certain proportion or percentage of the reserves has to maintained in the form of precious metals like Gold. The remaining part of the reserves is to be kept in specific assets such as Government Securities and Commercial Bills. Such a balance is maintained to give backing (support) to the total volume of currency notes issued by the apex central bank of a nation like FED in the USA, RBI in India, etc.[1]

For example, the Federal Reserve Act (1913) prescribed the Federal Reserve System (FED) of the USA to back currency notes issued by 40% Gold and remaining 60% by Government Securities.[2]

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